A recent news story out of France reported that the French national railroad system had converted a high-speed TGV train into a hospital train, to move COVID-19 patients from Strasbourg to less stressed hospitals in the Loire Valley. The first usage of mass transportation to evacuate and treat the wounded happened in the 1850s during the Crimean War, developed by the military. At that time in history, that meant usage of the railroads and steamships. Both were used a decade later in the United States during the Civil War, to help transport and treat sick and wounded soldiers.

In the Civil War, injured soldiers were first carried away from battles using empty freight and passenger cars, which were not ideally suited to the needs of either the soldiers or the medical staff attempting to treat them. As a consequence, some trains became fully converted to hospital trains, with kitchens, apothecaries, dressing stations, and facilities for the medical staff.

The next major usage of hospital trains did not occur until World War I, when they were needed as mobile medical facilities in both the United States and along the frontlines in Europe. These trains were a mix of standard freight and railway cars and specially outfitted hospital trains. In Europe, freight cars often carried equipment and soldiers to the front before taking the wounded on board for treatment and then helping convey them to safety away from the front. In the United States, trains were used to deliver wounded soldiers from port cities to hospitals throughout the country. Early on in the war, most of these trains were simply converted rail cars, but as the war went on, specialized hospital cars became more frequently used, and continued to be used well after the 1918 armistice, as soldiers remained in hospitals for many months. The trains were expensive to outfit, and were financed almost exclusively through donations, including through the sale of postcards featuring images of the trains.

A 1916 article in The American Journal of Nursing titled “A German Hospital Train”, written by a nurse on-board a train in Bremen, gives more information and context to the set-up and usage of these trains. “We have about 150 hospital trains which are approximately even in equipment and management. Possible changes and improvements are reserved to the physicians in charge and some are, perhaps, fitted out a little richer than the others in accordance with the taste of the donor. The administration is of two different kinds. Some of the trains are taken care of by the Red Cross and carry as attendants members of the association for volunteer nursing, although, of course, they are subject to military authority. Others are military hospital trains, the personnel of which, even the physicians, are at work as part of their military obligation. In these trains no female nurses are arrange for. Only at the special request of the donor, a merchant of Bremen, we had been allowed on our train. The trains of the Red Cross have, on the contrary, nearly always four female nurses. Our train consists of about 40 carriages; 26 for wounded, 1 for bandaging, 1 for the apothecary and the administration, 1 for the kitchen, 2 for the supplies, a refrigerator car in the summer, 2 for hot water supply, and then the necessary carriages for the three physicians and the rest of the attendants, composed of 30 military nurses, 6 subaltern sanitary officers, 4 female nurses, and 1 inspector, who is the housewife of the train, and the personnel for the kitchen and for the running of the train….Beds, washing facilities, etc., are arranged just as on a boat, possibly because the North German Lloyd has outfitted the train.”

Bernett Penka currently has in its inventory a remarkable and rare artifact relating to a German Red Cross hospital train from World War I, consisting of a colored blueprint of the layout of the train and 11 original photographs. This particular train had 38 cars, 26 of which were hospital cars with 10 beds each, allowing for the treatment and transport of 260 patients. Other cars included a kitchen, a pharmacy, a bandaging car, and a dining room for the nurses. The album was originally owned by Chief Medical Officer of Auxiliary Hospital Train 23, and his title was written on the inside cover and scratched out.

(Unique WWI Hospital Train Design) – Bremer Lazarettzüge, V1. – Z2. – No. 23. A fascinating and unique World War I German Red Cross hospital train photograph album, with an accordion-folded sheet the length of 10 pages, containing the title page, 8-leaf colored blueprint of the layout of the train, and 1-page description of the layout, followed by 11 original photographs, 9 of which show interior views and furnishings of the train, including the hospital cars (Krankenwagen), a hospital car specifically for officers (Offiziers-Krankenwagen), a bandaging car (Verbandswagen), the kitchen (Küche), an administration and pharmacy car (Operations – u. Apothekenwagen), the nurses’ dining room (Speisezimmer für Schwestern), a doctor’s room (Arztzimmer), and two exterior views, one with the Lloyd factory in the background, and one with the Lloyd liner “Bremen”. Some slight browning to mattes some wear along binding, images very fine. Small oblong 4to. Metal brad binding inside a floral cloth-covered album, “Bremer Lazarettzuge” impressed in gold to lower front right corner, appliqued felt Red Cross symbol to upper front left corner, some minor abrasions and edgewear. Bremen, 1915. (49072)

Resources:

Addeane S. Caelleigh, “Ambulance Trains,” Academic Medicine Vol. 76, no. 2 (February 2001): 153.

Irma Merkel, “A German Hospital Train,” AJN/American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 16, no. 5 (February 1916): 397-403.

{ 1 comment }

Hans Bellmer was a Surrealist German artist and photographer. Born in 1902 and initially working in the fields of advertising and graphic design before transitioning to fine art, Bellmer’s first major project was also one of his best-known – Die Puppe, or a group of life-sized and sexualized pubescent female dolls. The goal of this first project was to oppose Nazi fascism by not creating anything that would support the Third Reich, which he attempted to achieve by criticizing and commenting on the cult of the perfect body which existed in the German state at the time.

He took inspiration for his doll project from a variety of places, including reading the published letters of Austrian poet and playwright Oskar Kokoschka and attending a performance of Jacques Offenbach’s Tales of Hoffman in which a man falls in love with an automaton. He began to physically construct his first doll in 1933, which stood approximately 56 inches tall. In 1934 Bellmer anonymously published a book, The Doll (Die Puppe), which contained 10 black-and-white photographs of the doll arranged in a series of tableaux. Also in 1934, photographs of his doll appeared in the Surrealist journal Minotaure with the title “Poupée: Variations sur le montage d’une mineure articulée”. The doll was shown in some cases with sexualized props including a black veil, lacy undergarments, or flowers, or in some photos simply as a pile of doll parts. Of the doll, Bellmer wrote, “It was worth all my obsessive efforts when, amid the smell of glue and wet plaster, the essence of all that is impressive would take shape and become a real object to be possessed.” (Bellmer, 1934)

Bellmer was eventually declared a degenerate artist and was forced to flee Germany for France, where he was welcomed into the Surrealist circles there. He gave up doll-making but spent the rest of his life continuing to push sexual and erotic boundaries with a variety of explicit drawings, etchings, photographs, paintings, and prints of pubescent girls. F.A. Bernett currently has in its inventory an important work from this period of Bellmer’s creative life.

À Sade comprises a portfolio of ten incredibly explicit and surrealistic erotic etchings inspired by and in homage to the Marquis de Sade, the famous French libertine best known for his pornographic writings which emphasize violence, suffering, and blasphemy. The etchings are remarkable examples of Bellmer’s obsessive and meticulous treatment of the body especially the female form – limbs, genitalia, eyes, breasts, and buttocks are distorted or conflated, combining desire and horror in a way typical of both Bellmer’s work and de Sade’s.

Bellmer, Hans. À Sade. Unpaginated portfolio including title page, colophon, and ten explicit and detailed etchings inspired by the erotic writings of the Marquis de Sade, most plates approx. 7 7/8″ x 5 7/8″, each printed on 15″ x 11 1/16″ sheet, housed in separate blank folder with guard sheet, all signed in pencil by the artist. Contents loose as issued, in wrpps. portfolio, laid into cloth folder and slipcase. N.p. 1961. No. 30 of an edition of 50. (47737)

 Although published anonymously, our research shows that it was published in Paris by Alain Mazo. Incredibly scarce; as of April 2018, WorldCat locates only one copy in a German library and none in North America.

{ 0 comments }

John Heartfield (born Helmut Herzfeld) was an important and ground-breaking artist in Germany, known as the inventor of photomontage. He anglicized his name in protest against the anti-British sentiments prevalent in Germany after the First World War. He was a member of Berlin Club Dada, later assisting with the Erste International Dada-Messe exhibition of 1920. His first photomontages were created for publications associated with the Dada movement as well as book jackets for the publishing house run by his brother, Malik-Verlag.

 

Heartfield is called by some the creator of photomontage, and is best known for having helped to pioneer the use of art as a political weapon, primarily through his famous anti-Nazi and anti-fascist photomontages. These collages were not simple combinations of pictures and text, but appropriated and reused photographs to achieve powerful political effects. He chose recognizable photographs of politicians or events from mainstream news sources, and then took apart and rearranged the images to change their meaning and provide a commentary on the current state of the country. His aim was to expose the dangers and abuses of power within the Nazi regime by highlighting their incompetence, greed, and hypocrisy. His most impactful images played with scale and stark juxtaposition to get their point across. His work shadowed and reflected the chaos and agitation present in Germany in the 1920’s and 1930’s, as it shifted towards social and political upheaval.

 

Heartfield’s images illustrating these tensions were so powerful that they helped to transform the photomontage into a powerful tool of mass communication. Some of his most impactful works were even mass-produced and distributed as posters in the streets of Berlin between 1932 and the Nazi rise to power in 1933, when the SS broke into Heartfield’s apartment and he was forced to flee Germany. Many of his best-known images were created for and published in the pages of AIZ – Die Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung, an illustrated left-wing worker’s journal published in Berlin, beginning in 1930.

 

Most of his sharpest satire was reserved for Adolf Hitler, parodying his poses, gestures, and symbols associated with the dictator. One such example is this image titled “Adolf, the Superman: Swallows Gold and Spouts Junk”. Heartfield has overlaid a well-known photograph of the Führer with a chest x-ray and replaced his heart with a swastika. The x-ray reveals coins collecting in his stomach. Heartfield’s image references a cartoon by Honoré Daumier, and alludes to the large contributions that industrialists were making to the Nazi Party in contradiction to its supposed roots in socialism. This image made such an impact that it was reproduced as a political poster in 1932.

 

Another example is “Der Sinn des Hitlergrusses”. Heartfield exaggerates the difference in size between Hitler and the man behind him, handing him money, to comment again on Hitler’s relationship to Germany’s wealthy industrialists, a puppet accepting financial influence and assistance.

 

“The Meaning of Geneva” depicts a white dove, the symbol of peace, impaled on a bayonet, a symbol of modern warfare. In the background is the League of Nations palace, where the Geneva disarmament conference took place in November 1932. The text accompanying the image reads, “Where Capital Lives, There Can Be No Peace!”

 

 

(Heartfield Photomontages) – AIZ. Die Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung. Year X, No. 1 (n.d., 1931) through Year XII, No. 9 (n.d., 1933). 112 total issues of the illustrated left-wing German worker’s journal, published in Berlin from 1924 to March of 1933, and afterward in Prague and then Paris until 1938, anti-Fascist and pro-Communist in stance, published by Communist political activist Willi Münzenberg and best-known for its propagandistic photomontages by John Heartfield, of which 26 are included in this collection, and including coverage of current events, women’s issues, and gender relations, original fiction and poetry, and above all photography, primarily submitted by amateur photographers. Profusely illustrated throughout. Some very minor defects or small repairs, overall excellent condition. Folio. Original illustrated wrpps. Berlin (Neuer Deutscher Verlag) 1931-1933. (48927)

Before AIZ began, a monthly magazine called Sowjet Russland im Bild (Soviet Russia in Pictures) was published by Internationale Arbeiter-Hilfe (Workers International Relief), a group led by Willi Münzenberg. The magazine contained reports about the recently created Russian Soviet state and the IAH, and in 1922 began reporting on the German proletariat. As the paper expanded coverage and attracted prominent contributors such as George Grosz, Käthe Kollwitz, Maxim Gorki, and George Bernard Shaw, it grew rapidly and reappeared on November 30, 1924 with the new name of AIZ and a new format. Over time it became the most widely read socialist pictorial newspaper in Germany.

The issues included in this collection are: 1931 (Year X): Nos. 1-52; 1932 (Year XI): Nos. 1-52 (lacking no. 49 which was confiscated by the censorship authorities); and 1933 (Year XII): Nos. 1-9 (9 was the final issue published in Berlin after Hitler seized power).

{ 0 comments }

“Il est interdit d’interdire! (It is forbidden to forbid)”: The Protests That Defined a Generation

May 16, 2018

This month marks the 50th anniversary of the massive strikes and demonstrations held in Paris and across France in May 1968. To this day, “May 68” is considered to be a cultural, social, and moral turning point in the history of France, and the events of that time had a resounding impact which was felt […]

“By Any Means Necessary”: Black Power and the Rise of the Black Panther Party

May 2, 2018

The 1960s were a tumultuous time in history, both in the United States and around the world. The 1960s saw the Bay of Pigs, the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., important strides in the Civil Rights Movement including the Greensboro sit-in and the Selma-to-Montgomery march, student protests and demonstrations, […]

Iron and Ice: The Battle of Kil-Bouroun in Crimea

April 4, 2018

The Crimean War broke out on October 16, 1853 and lasted until early 1856, and was fought initially over the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was under the domain of the Ottoman Empire. On one side was the Ottoman Empire allied with Britain, Sardinia, and France, who favored the rights of […]

Divination and Cartomancy: An Impressive Collection of Tarot Cards

July 19, 2017

The history of tarot is long, and probably surprising to some. The earliest known surviving full deck dates to the early 15th century in Italy. Painted by Bonifacio Bembo for the Duke of Milan, it is known as the Visconti-Sforza deck, after the Duke’s family name. In Renaissance Europe, these decks of cards, then known […]

Historical and Documentary Photography in 19th and Early 20th Century America

May 31, 2017

The late 19th and early 20th centuries were periods of major change and important historical events throughout the United States, as well as key developments in photography technology. Life could be documented in a way that was never possible before, both physically and economically. Photography allowed for more precise archiving than either lithography or engraving. […]

Breaking Gender Barriers: Women and the WPA Milwaukee Handicraft Project

April 27, 2017

The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was the largest and most ambitious agency created by the United States government as part of the New Deal, established under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to help combat the Great Depression, focusing on the “3 Rs” of Relief, Recovery, and Reform: relief for the poor and unemployed, recovery of the […]

Printer’s Archive for the Official Program of the Democratic National Convention of 1936.

June 30, 2016

A complete archive of the original artwork, photographs, advertisements, and fully edited and corrected typewritten essays which comprise the official guide to the 1936 Democratic National Convention, held in Philadelphia: including 41 original pen and ink drawings by Lyle Justis used as vignettes and illustrations throughout the text; over 200 original photographs, most with identification […]

A Collection of Leftist Political Posters, 1960-2010

April 15, 2016

Cuba, OSPAAAL (Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa, and Latin America), 1971 and 1972  Extensive and Culturally Significant Archive of Approximately 500 Political Posters. An important, unique, and carefully curated collection of political posters, dated from approximately the 1960s to the 2000s, from a wide variety of leftist and militant groups in […]

Le Bal des Quat’z’ Arts: Revelry and Debauchery in Turn of the Century Paris

September 8, 2015

“It is a riot, a revival of paganism…It is also, in its way, a hymn to beauty, a living explosion of the senses and of the emotions.” – E. Berry Wall, Neither Past Nor Puritan In 1892, Henri Guillaume, Professor of Architecture at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, proposed that the students […]

The École de Montmartre in 1920’s Paris

August 17, 2015

              Paris in the late 19th and early 20th century, especially during the periods known as the Belle Époque and les Années Folles, was a hotbed of intellectual and artistic life. During the former, Montmartre was abuzz with cafés, cabarets, and artists’ studios, with a large number of painters […]

Charlie Hebdo’s Ancestors

January 23, 2015

  Journalism in France has a rich tradition of political satire and caricature, dating back many hundreds of years and gaining footholds at many crucial moments in France’s history. Popular in the 17th century, Molière and Jean de la Fontaine earned their fame mocking the upper echelons of society through comic plays or fables, often […]

Anni di piombo. The Lead Years, 1968-1982.

August 11, 2014

“Anni di piombo” (“The Lead Years”) has little nostalgic resonance in the US. Unlike “Mai ‘68”, which instantly evokes exhilarating scenes of French student occupations, demonstrations, police brutality, wildcat strikes, riots, and barricades. (And perhaps some fervent threesomes if you made it through Bertolucci’s The Dreamers.) While Mai ‘68 appears retrospectively as both the unfulfilled […]

Under the Matzos Tree.

May 9, 2014

52 Examples of Jewish-American Sheet Music from the Early 20th Century. A collection of English-language sheet music, ca. 4-8 pp. each, in orig. color illus. wrrps., most published in New York, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, or Los Angeles, ca. 1900-1920. (47699) “Under the Matzo Tree: A Ghetto Love Song,” “Yiddle on your Fiddle Play Some Rag […]

Contest of Realism. Novyi Lef.

March 11, 2014

Novyi Lef. Zhurnal Levogo Fronta Iskusstv. Year 1, No. 1 (January 1927) through Year 2, No. 12 (December 1928) (all published). 24 issues, published in 22 vols. as issued, comprising a complete first edition of the Soviet avant-garde monthly designed by Alexandr Rodchenko under the editorial direction of Vladimir Mayakovsky, followed by Sergei Tret’iakov, each […]

This Invitation Cannot Be Sold or Transferred.

January 21, 2014

Collection of Invitations, Programs, Flyers, Posters, Broadsides and other Ephemeral Items pertaining to the Palladium nightclub, June 1985 – May 1987. ca. 170 items ranging from single sheet to folding invitations, pop ups, and physical objects, executed in print processes including letterpress, stencil, silk screen, and off-set lithography, most in vibrant color. Items ranging in […]

Soucoupes Volantes Viennent d’Autres Mondes.

August 15, 2013

Collection of 20 titles, ca. 50-300 pp. each. Paris / Geneva / Moscow, 1897-1973, offered with Inforespace. Cosmologie Phénomènes Spatiaux Primhistoire. Revue Bimestrielle. Nos. 1 (1972) – 67, 69 – 71, 73 & 75, incl. the “hors serie” December annuals nos. 1 (1977) – 8 (1984). Altogether 80 issues comprising a 17-year head-of-series run of […]

“The Bankers Shall not Make the Peace” Labor Day Sketch Book 1947

June 10, 2013

Sally, Ted (drawings). Labor Day Sketch Book 1947. Los Angeles CIO Council. Unpaginated (ca. 32 pp.) presentation of proposed designs, drawn by Sally, for floats, banners, costumes, and other accoutrements for a union-oriented progressive Labor Day parade. Oblong large 4to. Orig. printed wrpps. Los Angeles (CIO Council) 1947. (47538) In the spring of 1947, The […]